Topics – Indian Polity, Mirage, Refraction of Light

1. Consider the following statements about Indian elections :
1. The Constitution provides that elections to the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of States are to be held on the basis of universal adult suffrage.
2. The Constitution stipulates that there will be separate electoral rolls for Parliamentary and State Assembly elections.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

2. In ancient Indian Buddhist monasteries, a ceremony called Pavarana used to be held. It was the
(a) occasion to elect the Sanghaparinayaka and two speakers one on Dhamma and the other on Vinaya
(b) confession by monks of their offences committed during their stay in the monasteries during the rainy season
(c) ceremony of initiation of new person into the Buddhist Sangha in which the head is shaved and when yellow robes are offered
(d) gathering of Buddhist monks on the next day to the full moon day of Ashadha when they take up affixed abode for the next four months or rainy season

3. Which of the following electoral systems have been adopted for various elections in India ?
I. System of direct elections on the basis of adult suffrage.
II. System of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
III. List system of proportional representation.
IV. Cumulative system of indirect elections.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below.
a)I and II
b)I and III
c)I, II and III
d)II, III and lV

4. The number of National Parties and State Parties recognised by the Election Commission at the time of 2014 General Elections in India respectively were
a)6 and 39
b)6 and 47
c)5 and 39
d)5 and 47

5. In India, the Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from his office in the same manner and on the same grounds as
a) A Judge of the Supreme Court
b) The Chief Justice of a High Court
c) The Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
d) The Attorney-General of India

6. Consider the following statements:
1. The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) is a specialised agency of United Nations System of Organisations
2. WIPO has its headquarters at Geneva, Switzerland.
3. The Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement is binding on all WTO members
4. Least developed country members of WTO are not required to apply the provisions of TRIPS Agreements for a period of 20 years from the general date of application of the Agreement
Which of these statements are correct?
a) 1, 2, 3 and 4
b) 2, 3 and 4
c) 1, 2 and 3
d) 1 and 3

7. Consider the following statements regarding Indian polity:
1. In India, a State cannot have more than 500 members in its Legislative Assembly.
2. The Legislative Council of a State in India cannot be larger in size than half of the Legislative Assembly of that particular State
3. To be a member of State Legislative Assembly, a citizen must not be less than 25 years of age
4. The Governor of a State nominates the Chairman for Legislative Council of that particular State
Which of these statements are correct?
a) 1,2,3 and 4
b) 2,3 and 4
c) 1,2 and 4
d) l and 3

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8. Which one of the following phenomena can be attributed to the refraction of light?
1. Twinkling of stars
2. Mirage
3. Rainbow
4. Red Shift

a) 1 and 2 only
b) 1 and 3 only
c) 1, 2 and 3 only
d) 4 only

9. Consider the following natural phenomena :

1. Terrestrial heating
2. Total Internal Reflection of light
3. Refraction of light
4. Diffraction of light

Due to which of these phenomena is mirage formed ?
a) 1 and 2
b) 1, 2, and 3
c) 1 and 3
d) 4 only

10. Which one of the following is an object with such a strong gravitational field that even light cannot escape from its surface ?
a) Neutron star
b) White dwarf
c) Black hole
d) Supernova star

Answers : 

1. A . Article 326 provides that elections to the House of the people and Legislative assemblies of states are to be held on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The power of superintendence,
direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls and the conduct of elections has been vested in the Election Commission under Article 324 of the Constitution of India. The
conditions for registration in an electoral roll are laid down in the Representation of the People Act, 1950. Section 15 of the Representation of the People Act, 1950 lays down that for every
assembly constituency, there shall be an electoral roll which shall be prepared in accordance with the provisions of that Act under the superintendence, direction and control of the Election Commission. In all States and Union Territories, the electoral roll for a Parliamentary constituency shall consist of the electoral rolls for all the assembly constituencies comprised within that Parliamentary constituency. In the State of Jammu and Kashmir and Union Territories not having a Legislative Assembly (viz. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Lakshadweep), separate electoral rolls are prepared for Parliamentary constituencies in the same manner as the electoral rolls for Assembly constituencies are prepared in other States and Union Territories. 

2. B. The Pavarana is a buddhist ceremony to mark the end of the rains-residence, Pavarana means invitation, and refers to the practice in the ceremony of a monk (and nuns) inviting the other monks ’to call him to account if they had seen or heard or suspected him to be guilty of any transgression during the period of Vassa ( Rains Retreat – from July to October) . The purpose of this confessional was to maintain the purity of conduct (parisuddhi) of the monastic community (saṅgha). The rains-residence lasts for 3 months. The Pavarana ceremony is held the day after. It is held in the monastery at which the monks and nuns stayed during the rains. Pavarana is followed shortly after by another ceremony, the kaṭhina ceremony (which emerged in Lanka by the seventh century CE). This involves laity giving new robes and other gifts to the monks. The kaṭhina ceremony is the most important ceremony expressing the interdependence of world-renouncing monks and merit-seeking laity.

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3. A. System of direct elections on the basis of adult suffrage – Lok Sabha and Legislative assembly Elections
System of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. – Presidential Elections

4. B. At the time of General Elections 2014 there were 6 national parties, 47 state parties and 1,634 unrecognized parties. A registered party is recognised as a National Party only if it fulfills any of the following three conditions:
1. The party wins 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha (11 seats) from at least 3 different States.
2. At a General Election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party polls 6% of votes in four States and in addition it wins 4 Lok Sabha seats.
3. A party gets recognition as State Party in four or more States.

5. A. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from his office by Parliament with two-thirds majority in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha on the grounds of proven mis behaviour or incapacity, similarly as a Judge of the Supreme Court Other Election Commissioners can be removed by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner.

6. C. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations created in 1967 “to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world.” WIPO currently has 187 member states and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

7. D . The Legislative Assembly consists of not more than 500 members and not less than 40. A person should be not less than 25 years of age to be member of the Legislative Assembly. The membership of Legislative Council should not be more than 1/3 of the membership of the Legislative assembly.The Legislative Council elects its Chairman and Deputy Chairman from amongst its members. The term of the Legislative Assembly is five years. But it may be dissolved even earlier than five years by the Governor on the request of Chief Minister. The term of the Legislative Assembly may be extended during an Emergency, but not more than six months at a time.In the State of Jammu and Kashmir the tenure of the Legislative Assembly is 6 years.

8. C . Refraction is the differential bending of light as it passes through a medium. It has various applications :
1. operation of fiber optic cables – By constructing a cable made from differentiated layers of glass, each with its own refractive index, it is possible to send a pulse of light down a cable for a considerable distance. The refractive gradient between layers of glass inside the cable keeps light of the desired wavelength traveling forward along the cable rather than being absorbed or redirected in a way that interrupts the signal.
2. Apparent position and twinkling of stars – The atmosphere consists of a number of parallel layers of different densities. Varying temperature and pressure account for the different densities. As the rays enter in layers of increasing densities they are being continuously refracted . In the process, the rays follow a curved path and reach the observer. But due to the wind and convection currents, the density of the layers go on changing. Therefore, after very short intervals of time, the position of the image of the star keeps changing ,and produces the winkling effect.
3. Apparent sunrise/sunset – Due to atmospheric refraction, sunrise occurs shortly before the sun crosses above the horizon. Light from the sun is bent, or refracted, as it enters earth’s atmosphere. This effect causes the apparent sunrise to be earlier than the actual sunrise. Similarly, apparent sunset occurs slightly later than actual sunset. The sunrise and sunset times reported in our calculator have been corrected for the approximate effects of atmospheric refraction. However, it should be noted that due to changes in air pressure, relative humidity, and other quantities, we cannot predict the exact effects of atmospheric refraction on sunrise and sunset time. Also note that this possible error increases with higher (closer to the poles) latitudes.
4. Spear Fishing , Bending of stick in water, A coin appears raised in water

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9. B. A mirage is an optical phenomenon that creates the illusion of water and results from the refraction of light through a non-uniform medium. Mirages occur on sunny days. The role of the sun is to heat the roadway to high temperatures. This heated roadway in turn heats the surrounding air, keeping the air just above the roadway at higher temperatures than that day’s average air temperature. Hot air tends to be less optically dense than cooler air. As such, a non-uniform medium has been created by the heating of the roadway and the air just above it. While light will travel in a straight line through a uniform medium, it will refract when traveling through a non-uniform medium

10. C. Light can’t escape from a black hole because the gravity of a black hole is too powerful, it creates a gravitational well so steep not even light has enough speed to escape it.

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