Topics – Geography, Climate, Oceans
1. Which one of the following chemical substances exists as a gas under ordinary conditions and room temperature?
2. Polar bears are carnivores and prey on many arctic birds and fish. However, under natural conditions, no one found polar bears predating any penguin. This is because
a) penguins have chemical substance in their muscles which is toxic to polar bears
b) penguins are gregarious and always move in groups. Therefore, a polar bear cannot approach them
c) polar bears and penguins never coexist under natural conditions. The former lives in the North Pole while the latter lives in the South Pole
d) polar bears and penguins display symbiotic relationships and they help each other for their existence in the ice-cold ecosystem
3. Which one of the following is true for the flow of water from high level to low level (at constant temperature and pressure)?
a) ∆G = 0
b) ∆G = 1
c) ∆G < 0
d) ∆G = ∞
4. Which of the following states Avogadro’s Law?
a) The production of specific heat and atomic weight of a solid element is constant (approximately 6.4)
b) The pressure of a fixed mass of a gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to its volume
c) At a constant temperature and pressure, the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its density.
d) Equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.
5. The average salinity of the ocean water is
6. The Climate of India is mainly tropical because
a) Of the location of the Himalayas in its North
b) Major part of India lies within the tropics
c) Of the over-powering influence of Indian Ocean
d) Of the seasonal influence of jet streams
7. Consider the following statements with reference to Tornadoes:
1. Tornadoes are smaller and more intense than hurricanes
2. Tornadoes are most abundant along the eastern coast of India
3. The average tornado lasts for less than one hour
4. Tornadoes are most common in the afternoons in the early summer
Which of these statements are correct?
a) 1,3 and 4
b) 2,3 and 4
c) 1,2 and 4
d) 1, 2 and 3
8. Which one of the following barrages supplies water to the Indira Gandhi Canal?
9. Which one of the following is not an area of seismic activity?
a) Circum-Atlantic Ocean
b) Circum-Parific Ocean
c) Circum-Indian Ocean
d) Mid-Atlantic Ocean
10. Which one of the following is a motile unicellular organism with a single cilium and can exist as an autotroph as well as a saprotroph?
1. B . Halocarbon 14 (Tetrafluoromethane) (CF4) is a colorless, nontoxic, nonflammable, noncorrosive gas with a slight ether-like odor. Halocarbon 14 is normally compressed and shipped at high pressure. It is a low temperature refridgerant and is also used in a variety of wafer etch processes.
2. C. Polar Bears can not possibly eat penguins as they live on opposite sides of the earth. Penguins are totally in the southern hemisphere, while Polar Bears are in the northern. ( arctic region )
3. C. GIbbs free energy is the amount of thermodynamic energy in a fluid system which can be converted into non-mechanical work at a constant temperature and pressure. ΔG can predict the direction of the chemical reaction under two conditions: (1) constant temperature and (2) constant pressure. If ΔG is positive, then the reaction is non-spontaneous (requires external energy to occur) and if it is negative, then it is spontaneous (occurs without external energy input). Spontaneous does not imply that it is instantaneous. It could happen over the course of years or decades. Water flows from a high level to low level due to gravity i.e. it is spontaneous. So, ΔG < 0
ΔG < 0 , the reaction is spontaneous
ΔG > 0, the reaction is nonspontaneous
ΔG = 0, the reaction is at equilibrium
4. D. Avogadro’s law, a statement that under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of molecules regardless of their chemical nature and physical properties. The law is approximately valid for real gases at sufficiently low pressures and high temperatures.
5. C . Salinity is expressed by the amount of salt found in 1,000 grams of water. Therefore, if we have 1 gram of salt and 1,000 grams of water, the salinity is 1 part per thousand, or 1 ppt. The average ocean salinity is 35 ppt (3.5% ) . This number varies between about 32 and 37 ppt.
6. A. The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. It is because of these mountains that this subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to central Asia. It also forms a barrier for the rain bearing south-west monsoon winds, keeping them from traveling northwards, and causing heavy rainfall in the Terai region.
7. A. Hurricane – Large scale storm systems that may range in diameter from 100-1000 miles. They are intense low pressure systems that feed off of warm water of the ocean.
Tornado – A far more localized storm whose diameter ranges from 50 meters to up to 1.5 miles. They are smaller and weaker than the most intense hurricanes. A tornado is “a violently rotating column of air. Tornadoes can last from several seconds to more than an hour. Although tornadoes are more frequent in the afternoon, they can happen anytime, even at night. The They are most abundant in the United States about 1,200 tornadoes per year. In India, they occur along the eastern side.
8. B. Water to the Indira Gandhi Canal is supplied by the Harike Barrage at Sultanpur, a few kilometers below the confluence of the Sutlej and Beas rivers in Punjab state. The canal does not do any irrigation in Punjab and is known as Rajasthan Feeder.
9. D. An area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur is called the Ring of Fire. Circum-Pacific belt is home to over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes. The next most seismically active region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world’s largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt, which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the
Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. The mid-Atlantic and central Appalachian region is characterized by a moderate amount of low-level earthquake activity.
Autotrophs: The organisms which are capable to prepare their own food by the process of photosynthesis are called autotrophs. They are also called producers. For example: green plants.
Heterotrophs: The organisms which are not capable to prepare their own food by the process of photosynthesis but depend directly on plants for their food are called heterotrophs. For example: rabbit, cows.
Saprotrophs: The organisms which depend on dead and decaying organic materials like plants and animals are called saprotrophs. For example: fungus.
Euglena carries an autotrophic and saprotrophic nutrition at the same time. This is called mixtrotrophic nutrition. They act as autotrophs in sunlight and heterotrophs in the dark. Euglena do not have plant cell walls and can survive in fresh and salt water.
Recommended Book for Geography – Certificate Physical and Human Geography